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Senin, 27 Juni 2016

List of Medications for Diabetes




This comprehensive listing includes antihyperglycemic agents that can be used for glycemic control in diabetes.
New Antihyperglycemics
Class
Generic/Brand/Approval year
SGLT-2 inhibitor
Canagliflozin (Invokana), 2013
DPP-4 inhibitor
Alogliptin (Nesina, Vipidia), 2013
SGLT-2 inhibitor
Dapagliflozin (Farxiga), 2014
SGLT-2 inhibitor
Empagliflozin (Jardiance), 2014
GLP-1 receptor agonist
Albiglutide (Tanzeum), 2014
GLP-1 receptor agonist
Dulaglutide (Trulicity), 2014
Inhaled insulin powder
Afrezza, 2014

Insulins
Generic
Brand Name
Rapid Acting Insulins
Insulin aspart
Novolog
Insulin glulisine
Apidra
Insulin lispro
Humalog
Insulin human
Afrezza Inhalation Powder
Short Acting Insulins
Regular insulin
Humulin R, Novolin R
Intermediate Acting Insulins
Insulin NPH
Hagedorn NPH , Humulin N, Novolin N
Long Acting Insulins
Insulin detemir
Levemir
Insulin glargine
Lantus
Premixed Insulins
Insulin aspart protamine/
insulin aspart
NovoLog 50/50, NovoLog 70/30
Insulin lispro protamine/
insulin lispro
Humalog 50/50, Humalog 75/25
Sensitizers
Sensitizers increase the sensitivity of target organs to insulin.
Biguanides
Biguanides improve peripheral glucose uptake and utilization.
Generic
Brand Name
Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet, Fortamet
Phenformin and Buformin where withdrawn due to lactic acidosis risk.
Thiazolidinediones (Glitazones)
Thiazolidinediones work through the improvement of insulin sensitivity by acting on adipose, muscle, and liver to increase glucose utilization and decrease glucose production.
Generic
Brand Name
Rosiglitazone
Avandia
Pioglitazone
Actos

Secretagogues
Secretagogues increase insulin secretion by the pancreas.
Sulfonylureas
Sulfonylureas stimulate insulin release by inhibiting the KATP channel of the pancreatic beta cells. Sulfonylureas are useful only in Type II diabetes, as they work by stimulating endogenous release of insulin.
Generic
Brand Name
First-generation
Acetohexamide
Dymelor
Chlorpropamide
Diabinese
Tolazamide
Tolinase
Tolbutamide
Orinase
Second-generation
Glipizide
Glucotrol, Minidiab, Glibenese
Glyburide (glibenclamide)
Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase, Daonil, Euglycon
Glimepiride
Amaryl
Gliclazide
Uni Diamicron
Glyclopyramide
Deamelin-S
Gliquidone
Glurenorm

Meglitinides
Meglitinide derivatives stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, lowering blood glucose levels.
Generic
Brand Name
Nateglinide
Starlix
Repaglinide
Prandin, NovoNorm


Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are not technically hypoglycemic agents because they do not have a direct effect on insulin secretion or sensitivity. These medications slow the digestive and absorptive process, preventing postprandial glucose raise.
Generic
Brand Name
Acarbose
Precose, Glucobay
Miglitol
Glyset
Voglibose
Basen
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) Agonists
GLP-1 analogs decrease both fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels without causing hypoglycemia 3. Also, GLP-1 analogs may promote modest weight loss.
Generic
Brand Name
Short-acting GLP-1 analogs
Exenatide
Byetta
Lixisenatide
Lyxumia
Long-acting GLP-1 analogs
Liraglutide
Victoza
Prolonged-acting GLP-1 analogs
Albiglutide
Tanzeum
Dulaglutide
Trulicity
Exenatide once weekly
Bydureon
Under development
Taspoglutide
Phase III clinical trials 4

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors (Gliptins)
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors inhibit DPP-4, the enzyme that inactivates incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP.
Generic
Brand Name
Alogliptin
Nesina, Vipidia
Anagliptin
Suiny
Linagliptin
Trajenta
Saxagliptin
Onglyza
Sitagliptin
Januvia
Teneligliptin
Tenelia
DPP-4 inhibitors under development
Dutogliptin 5

Gemigliptin 6


Amylin Analogues
Pramlintide is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring pancreatic peptide amylin. Amylin and pramlintide lower postprandial glucose by lowering postprandial glucagon and delaying gastric emptying. Pramlintide is indicated for y Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics who use insulin.
Generic
Brand Name
Pramlintide
Symlin


Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors
SGLT-2 inhibitors is a relatively new drug class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. SGLT-2 inhibitors block reabsorption of glucose in the kidney. dThe mechanism of action is insulin independent.
Generic
Brand Name
Canagliflozin
Invokana
Dapagliflozin
Forxiga, Farxiga
Empagliflozin
Jardiance
SGLT-2 inhibitors under development
Ertugliflozin

Ipragliflozin

Remogliflozin etabonate

Tofogliflozin


Other Anti-diabetic Drugs
Generic
Brand Name
Dopamine agonist
Bromocriptine
Parlodel, Cycloset
Bile acid sequestrant
Colesevelam
Welchol, Cholestagel, Lodalis
Combinations
Generic
Brand Name
Alogliptin + Metformin
Kazano
Dapagliflozin + Metformin
Xigduo XR
Glipizide + Metformin
Metaglip
Glyburide + Metformin
Glucovance
Linagliptin + Metformin
Jentadueto
Pioglitazone + Metformin
Actoplus Met, Actoplus Met XR
Repaglinide + Metformin
Prandimet
Rosiglitazone + Metformin
Avandamet
Saxagliptin + Metformin
Kombiglyze XR
Sitagliptin + Metformin
Janumet
Rosiglitazone + Glimepiride
Avandaryl
Pioglitazone + Glimepiride
Duetact
Alogliptin + Pioglitazone
Oseni
Simvastatin + Sitagliptin
Juvisync
Empagliflozin + Metformin
Synjardy


Resources
  • 1. New FDA Approved Drugs CenterWatch
  • 2. David A. Williams. Foye's Medicinal Chemistry. 7th Ed; LWW, 2012
  • 3. Cho YM, Wideman RD, Kieffer TJ. Clinical application of glucagon-like Peptide 1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2013 Dec;28(4):262-74. Full text
  • 4. Rosenstock J, Balas B, Charbonnel B, Bolli GB, Boldrin M, Ratner R, Balena R; T-emerge 2 Study Group. The fate of taspoglutide, a weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist, versus twice-daily exenatide for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013 Mar. PubMed
  • 5. Pattzi HM, Pitale S, Alpizar M, Bennett C, O'Farrell AM, Li J, Cherrington JM, Guler HP; PHX1149-PROT202 Study Group. Dutogliptin, a selective DPP4 inhibitor, improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Apr;12(4):348-55. PubMed
  • 6. Kim SH, Lee SH, Yim HJ. Gemigliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor: first new anti-diabetic drug in the history of Korean pharmaceutical industry. Arch Pharm Res. 2013 Oct;36(10):1185-8. PubMed